Original Date: 03/08/1999
Revision Date: 01/18/2007
Best Practice : High Velocity Particle Consolidation
The Applied Research Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University (ARL Penn State) developed and implemented a High Velocity Particle Consolidation process for applying special coatings on various substrates. This low-temperature deposition process can produce coatings from one micrometer to 20 millimeters by accelerating particles at sufficiently high velocities. This approach produces initial embedding into the substrate as well as subsequent solid-state welding on the deposited material.
The gas temperature for the High Velocity Particle Consolidation ranges from 0× C to 800× C. The process imposes minimum residual stress on the substrate due to low-temperature application, and produces a high degree of adhesion to the substrate which makes thick coatings possible. The coating properties are similar to those of powder properties. The High Velocity Particle Consolidation process uses a high deposition rate, provides high material use efficiency, and produces freestanding structures for rapid prototyping. By using this simple, efficient, and low cost method, the ARL Penn State can apply special coatings such as AlSi and AlSiC on 2024-T6 substrate. Others coatings including Al-12Si+SiC, AA5083+SiC, AA6061+SiC, and Al-Ce-Cr-Co+SiC have been deposited on various substrates such as metal, alloys, glass, ceramics, and polymers.
The ARL Penn State installed an automated spray cell for process. This initial capital equipment investment was less than $150,000. In the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) program, the High Velocity Particle Consolidation provided deposition of wear-resistant aluminum composite coating, which replaced the 4140 steel wheel and reduced more than 20% of the wheel’s weight. This process is adaptable to wheel repair and rework. Other commercial applications include wear-resistant coating on steam pistons and track components; soldering and brazing coatings; valve seat cladding; and heating element deposition on glass. The High Velocity Particle Consolidation proves to be a low cost, high technology material deposition process for low-temperature applications of selected coatings.
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