Original Date: 08/20/2001
Revision Date: 12/14/2006
Best Practice : Manpower Analysis Process
The Manpower Analysis Process is a highly innovative way to forecast ship system manning requirements. The Process features two powerful simulation tools that successfully deal with the human equation aboard high- technology Navies.
Previously, Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems-Surface Systems (NE&SS-SS) derived its system manpower requirements from spreadsheet calculations that totaled the man-hour estimates for operations and maintenance. This method was subjective and prone to considerable variation. To resolve these issues, the Lifetime Support Operations at Lockheed Martin NE&SS-SS implemented the Manpower Analysis Process (MAP), a highly innovative way to forecast ship system manning requirements.
MAP introduces a virtual environment based on modeling and simulation that satisfies multiple high-level objectives. The process identifies system manpower requirements by creating a Preliminary Ship Manpower Document (PSMD); traces system requirements through to human tasks and roles to perform these tasks; provides trade-off information for making system staffing decisions; facilitates design recommendations for optimal staff utilization; and supports balancing between automation and human tasking. Simulation results are periodically checked against actual fleet observations, which includes direct input from ship system personnel.
The Total Crew Model (TCM) and the Watchstander Task Model are powerful simulation tools used in MAP. TCM effectively validates manpower analysis simulations to determine the adequacy of a proposed crew complement. Data from these simulations are used to determine if the assigned crew complement can successfully accomplish all underway operations and do so within acceptable fatigue levels. TCM considers the combined effects of crew size, watchstanding schedules, watch quarter and station bill (WQ&SB) assignments, and performance recovery rules. The process indicates crew saturation points for any sequence or combination of tasks. Input from crews is used to run more realistic, special event scenarios reflecting the upper limits of crew endurance. The Watchstander Task Model effectively validates manpower analysis simulations to examine watchstander workload during high-stress, realistic scenarios in the context of the conceptual system design. Data from these simulations are used to determine optimum manning requirements, and to identify areas where system automation will effectively reduce crew workload. As a result, manpower requirements are factored into the design phase early-on, significantly affecting the deployed technology. Model designs permit the simulation of any team size, task, or automation adjustment, which renders valuable feedback to system designers.
MAP provides Lockheed Martin NE&SS-SS with tactical and strategic implications. This approach has been applied to the U.S. Coast Guard Deepwater Program, the U.S. Navy Destroyer Duran-Ballen 21, the U.S. Navy Aegis Destroyer/Cruiser, and the new Norwegian Frigate. Directives associated with cost and technology incentives are leading to greater awareness and acceptance of MAP technology. This integrated process places Lockheed Martin NE&SS-SS in an advantageous position with respect to the human/system needs of 21st Century Navies. Future ship staffing levels will be evenly matched and balanced with technology, permitting an optimal engagement in any given scenario.
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