1 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. 1996. Joint Vision 2010, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C.
2 According to Department of Defense Directive 5100.1, promulgated September 25, 1987, the Department of Defense is composed of "the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments and the Military Services within those Departments, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff, the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, the Defense Agencies and DOD Field Activities, and such other offices, agencies, activities and commands as may be established or designated by law, or by the President or the Secretary of Defense." This report adopts this convention, and the use of the term "DOD" without other qualification refers to all of the constituent elements described in this directive.
3 Such decisions can range from those at the theater level (e.g., deciding which forces should be deployed in what locations) to the tactical level (e.g., deciding which specific weapons should be allocated against which targets).
4 Linked Operations-Intelligence Centers Europe is the U.S. European Command's system that provides U.S. and NATO forces, and other allied forces, with near-real-time correlated situation and order-of-battle information. For more information see Joint Distributive Intelligence Support System Program Office.
5 See, for example, H.S. Marsh and P.J. Walsh, Employment Strategies and CONOPS Enabled: A Compilation of Draft White Papers on Future Employment Strategies and CONOPS Enabled Prepared to Support the C4ISR Mission Assessment, November 22, 1996, Draft, SRI International.
6 In some usages, the term "common operating picture" refers to a view of the battlespace that is near-real-time; in other usages, it refers to a view that lags by as much as an hour. This report adopts neither usage, preferring instead to make the time dimension explicit when it is relevant to the discussion.
7 This is not to say that the notion of a common operating picture is new. For example, the foundation of the Navy's Joint Maritime Command Information System is a common operating picture of a battlespace that is relevant to Navy operations, and JMCIS has been in existence since around 1993. The JMCIS common operating picture integrates reports from a variety of sensors, including some on the ship where the common operating picture is displayed and other off-board sensors on accompanying platforms dispersed in the battlespace. However, because JMCIS is oriented toward Navy operations, the JMCIS common operating picture is available primarily to surface and subsurface platforms. The intent of the programs described is to pass a common operating picture to tactical echelons that are much lower in the command hierarchy.
8 Army Digitization Office. 1996. Army Digitization Master Plan, 1996, Army Digitization Office, Washington, D.C., March.
9 Adapted from the BADD program overview: Office of the Under Secretary for Acquisition and Technology, 1999, Battlefield Awareness and Data Dissemination , Office of the Under Secretary for Acquisition and Technology, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C..
10 Adapted from the ELB program overview: Office of the Under Secretary for Acquisition and Technology, 1999, Extending the Littoral Battlespace , Office of the Under Secretary for Acquisition and Technology, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C.
11 A potential downside to a common operating picture is that detailed awareness at all levels of command above those that are the "trigger pullers" creates the potential for second-guessing, with a negative impact on the initiative of those who are engaged in combat. Whether this and other potential problems in fact turn out to be real problems, and if they are, how they can be managed, are research areas that need to be explored.
12 William S. Cohen. 1998. Annual Report to the President and to Congress, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C., Chapter 1.
13 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. 1996. Joint Vision 2010, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C.
14 For example, the concept of separating selected functions and relying on reach-back to link the elements may have promise but requires further exploration.
15 Small forces are preferred for operations other than war because they minimize political concerns about undue U.S. involvement, both in the host nation and in the United States. In addition, small forces are much easier and faster to deploy, ` access to intelligence information, that is sized down to be carried by a single vehicle.
17 See President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection. 1997. Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructures, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.; Defense Science Board. 1996. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Information Warfare-Defense (IW-D), Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, Washington, D.C.
18 Of course, commercial imaging satellites do not provide the resolution that military satellites provide, although commercial image quality will be adequate for many purposes.
19 General Accounting Office. 1998. Defense Information Superiority: Progress Made, But Significant Challenges Remain, GAO/AIMD-98-257, General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C.
20 These categories are strategic forces; general-purpose forces; intelligence and communications; air and sealift; guard and reserve forces; research and development; central supply and maintenance; training, medical, and other; administrative and associated costs; support to other nations; and special operations.
21 Electronics Industry Association press release, "EIA Ten-Year Forecast Projects 14% Growth in Electronics; Defense Market Remains Stable," October 8, 1997.
22 CINC, an acronym for "commander-in-chief," refers to the commander of a specified or unified combatant command. The term "CINCs" refers to the commanders of the combatant commands. The combatant commands include the U.S. European Command, U.S. Pacific Command, U.S. Atlantic Command, U.S. Southern Command, U.S. Central Command, U.S. Space Command, U.S. Special Operations Command, U.S. Transportation Command, and U.S. Strategic Command.