As noted above, all large organizations have trouble
achieving interoperability. As a practical matter, large organizations are
generally not able to start with a blank slate with their information systems.
In other cases, enterprises that are reengineering across a range of business
practices, or that are restructuring operations, will introduce major new
systems.12 In both instances, it makes
sense to strive for an information systems environment--perhaps never fully
realized in practice--that is based on a clean architecture and requirements
specification, common data structures, common interface requirements, and
well-specified high-level information flows. Systems constructed in accordance
with such an architecture are much more likely to be adequately interoperable
than those that are not.