||DAU RMG 5th: Risk Management Guide for DoD Acquisition
does not attempt to eliminate the source of the risk but seeks to
reduce or mitigate the risks. It monitors and manages the risk in a manner
that reduces the probability/likelihood and/or consequence/impact of its
occurrence or minimizes the risk’s effect on the program. This option may add
to the cost of a program; however, the selected approach should provide an
optional risk among the candidate approaches of risk reduction, cost
effectiveness, and schedule impact. A sampling is listed below of the types of
risk control actions available to the PMO. Paragraph 5.6.2 discusses them in
- Multiple Development Efforts. Create competing systems
in parallel that meet the same performance requirements.
- Alternative Design. Create a backup design option that
uses a lower risk approach.
- Trade Studies. Arrive at a balance of engineering
requirements in the design of a system.
- Early Prototyping. Build and test prototypes early in
the system development.
- Incremental Development. Design with the intent of
upgrading system parts in the future.
- Technology Maturation Efforts. Normally, technology
maturation is used when the desired technology will replace an existing
technology which is available for use in the system.
- Robust Design. This approach, while it could be more
costly, uses advanced design and manufacturing techniques that promote
quality through design.
- Reviews, Walk-throughs, and Inspections. These three
actions can be used to reduce the probability/likelihood and potential
consequences/impacts of risks through timely assessment of actual or planned
- Design of Experiments. This engineering tool identifies
critical design factors that are sensitive, therefore potentially high risk,
to achieve a particular user requirement.
- Open Systems. Carefully selected commercial
specifications and standards whose use can result in lower
- Use of Standard Items/Software Reuse. Use of existing
and proven hardware and software, where applicable, can substantially reduce
- Two-Phase Development. Incorporation of formal risk
reduction into System Development and Demonstration (SDD). The first part of
SDD is System Integration (SI), where prototypes are developed and tested.
In the second part, System Demonstration (SD), Engineering Development
Models (EDMs) are developed and tested.
- Use of Mock-ups. The use of mock-ups, especially
man-machine interface mock-ups, can be used to conduct early exploration of
- Modeling/Simulation. Modeling and simulation can be
used to investigate various design options and system requirement
- Key Parameter Control Boards. The practice of
establishing a control board for a parameter may be appropriate when a
particular feature (such as system weight) is crucial to achieving the
overall program requirements.
- Manufacturing Screening. For programs in SDD, various
manufacturing screens (including environmental stress screening (ESS)) can
be incorporated into test article production and low rate initial production
(LRIP) to identify deficient manufacturing processes. ESS is a manufacturing
process for stimulating parts and workmanship defects in electronic
assemblies and units.
- Test, Analyze, and Fix (TAAF). TAAF is the use of a
period of dedicated testing to identify and correct deficiencies in a
- Demonstration Events. Demonstration events are points
in the program (normally tests) that determine if risks are being
- Process Proofing. Similar to Program Metrics, but aimed
at manufacturing and support processes which are critical to achieving
system requirements. Proofing simulates actual production environments and
conditions to insure repeatedly conforming hardware and software.
As you can see, there are numerous means that can be used to actively