Early Logistic Support Strategy
LSA must begin early in a product development program to provide logistic
information for the program manager's decision process (LSA Process Phase 1).
LSA must also interact with product design to ensure that the product meets
the customer's stated needs. As the design evolves, the LSA process evolves
from a general concept to a detailed definition of specific logistic support
elements (LSA Process Phase 7). However, to avoid costly design changes, the
LSA process should not be completed until the product design is
When a product concept is defined (LSA Process Phase 1), consideration of
an LSA strategy should begin. Operational and maintenance constraints must be
identified early for inclusion in the design, for example:
How many people are available to operate and
maintain the equipment?
How technically sophisticated are the available operators and maintenance
Are the required repair and support facilities and
If support parameters are not defined, equipment redesign and/or
excessive technical documentation, personnel training, or special test
equipment result, causing added program cost.
Comparative Analysis, Use Study, and Alternative Support
The early LSA strategy is refined through comparative product analysis, use
studies, and alterative support studies (LSA Process Phase 2). The resulting
operational, maintenance, and diagnostics concepts impact product
requirements. Developing these important concepts demands as active customer
and contractor input as establishing other product requirements.
The maintenance concept philosophy (LSA Process Phase 3) defines the
overall approach to maintenance. For example, consider the difference between
the maintenance concept for aircraft and that for submarines. For aircraft,
minimal equipment repair is done during flight. After landing, the entire
faulty unit is replaced on-site. Then the faulty unit is sent for repair to an
off-site shop. For submarines, however, significant repairs while at sea are
commonly done down to the circuit-card level by the ship's personnel.
The maintenance concept significantly influences all areas of logistics
from planning logistic support resources to influencing the product design.
Initially, the maintenance concept is broadly defined. Then, based on the
results of contractor analyses (LSA Process Phase 5), the concept is refined
as needed by the customer. The resulting final maintenance concept defines the
required test, condition monitoring, and diagnostics capabilities, as well as
maintenance levels and capabilities. (For example, see the Level of Repair
Analysis paragraph in this section). All this information is needed to
determine if the maintenance and testing support already exists or if it needs
to be established.
Simply put, the operational concept defines the broad
environment in which a product must function. The product design must reflect
the intended use, the defined requirements of the user, and the user's
existing facilities/resources. For instance, designing a hand carried
product that weighs 300 pounds makes little sense.
As with the maintenance concept, the operational concept is refined as the
product design evolves. The progressing product design generates data through
the LSA process. This data may then dictate modifications to the design and/or
operational and maintenance concepts. The cycle repeats, until eventually,
detailed resource needs and methods for meeting those needs are
Given adequate concepts and a stable design, development of the logistic
elements (LSA Process Phase 7) can begin in earnest. They should not have to
be extensively reworked.
Thoroughly considered operational and maintenance concepts must be
communicated early in the design process to avoid unnecessary costs and
inadequate product support.
The diagnostics concept (LSA Process Phase 3) identifies, isolates, and
locates failures to determine product support resources. For fault detection,
automated diagnostics would seem to lessen manning, spares, and other support
needs. However, fully automated diagnostics usually involve high initial
design and production costs and, therefore, may not always result in the most
cost-effective solution. Also, some diagnostic tasks are simple and should
remain manual tasks. A mix of automated and manual diagnostics should make the
product more useful to the customer. Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis is used to
determine the optimum mix.
Failure Mode, Effects, Criticality Analysis
Failure Mode, Effects, Criticality Analysis (FMECA) (LSA Process Phase 5)
identifies possible failures, their causes and effects, and how critical they
are to safety and proper equipment operation. Predicting how a product might
fail is crucial to developing initial troubleshooting procedures.
Reliability and Maintainability Analysis
Reliability analysis (LSA Process Phase 5) predicts failure rates. Knowing
how and when an item will fail helps determine:
Maintainability analysis (LSA Process Phase 5) predicts, among other
things, the time needed to repair a product and its components.
Maintainability analysis also determines the total support needs for manning,
spares, and support equipment.
Predicted Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) figures, used early
and throughout the development phase, can ensure the product's
capability to support the stated mission.
Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
LCC analysis (LSA Process Phase 5) is a broad analytical approach: LCC
considers all variables that affect producing and sustaining a product for the
duration of that product's life. LCC is important because all costs are
considered (e.g., research and development, production, operations and
maintenance, and phase-out).
LCC analysis is an effective method of viewing a product and its
support system from an economic standpoint. LCC analysis is repeated
whenever any of the factors affecting product design and/or support
Level of Repair Analysis
The Level Of Repair Analysis (LORA) (LSA Process Phase 5) determines
whether a particular component or part should be:
Repaired at the customer's location (organizational-level
Repaired at a special repair facility (intermediate-level
Repaired at a depot or centralized facility (depot-level
to achieve the best economies. Although cost is usually
the main consideration, other factors, such as operating advantages, should be
LORA and LCC are intermingled and provide important inputs to LSA. Each
offers the opportunity for tradeoffs to achieve the least life cost while
meeting operational requirements.
Human Factors and Safety Analyses
Human factors analysis (LSA Process Phase 5) evaluates the compatibility of
the product design and the human aspects of product maintenance and operation.
Safety analysis (LSA Process Phase 5) identifies potential safety hazards in
These analyses provide data to determine personnel and training
requirements which, in turn, affect other logistic requirements. For example,
hazards inherent in repair of a component or great difficulty in access could
dictate whether that component is repaired locally, is repaired at a factory,
or is discarded altogether.
Logistic Support Documentation
Logistic support documentation (LSA Process Phase 6) captures and
integrates the results of all the analytical activities. The formal method or
vehicle for handling and processing the LSA data for this synthesis is the
LSAR (LSA Process Phase 6). The LSAR and the large data base that feeds the
LSAR system can, through data selection, generate the various reports needed
for making program decisions and/or choosing design alternatives. The
resulting product design should meet customer needs and requirements, but only
if the process is:
Properly tailored to the specific program
Begun at the outset of the program
Completed after a relatively stable product design
has been reached.
LSA outputs should be integrated into the product design (both
hardware and the support software) to create a final product that meets
customer needs at a cost the customer is willing to pay.
The directives for performing LSA are specific: the key to success
is timing of the various interdependent steps and doing only the
LSA necessary to make effective decisions for a particular
LSAR Data Processing
LSAR data can be incorporated into a data base either manually, through
automatic data processing, or through a combination of both methods, depending
on the volume of information. Automatic data processing allows fast and more
accurate processing for generating preliminary and final reports in a timely
manner. Also, the LSAR process is invaluable for categorizing this large
volume of data for quick generation of the many specialized reports needed to
develop training, initial technical procedures, and other required activities.
Some of the key reports are Repair Parts List, Special Tools List, and
Preliminary Maintenance Allocation Summary.
The LSAR should capture only that data needed to support the logistics
program for a particular design program. Improperly tailored LSAR data
elements result in inadequate data capture or excessive costs for too much
Tailoring of prescribed data elements can make or break the LSAR
LSA is an analytical process which integrates logistic support by.
influencing the product design. This influence is directed towards maximum
product use and minimum product maintenance cost. The results of LSA are
incorporated into a data base from which various LSARs are generated. The
LSARs and their associated reports provide information for deciding what
actions are required to instigate and execute the logistic elements. In other
words the logistic elements are the products of the LSA process. A detailed,
stand-alone discussion of each logistic element is presented in the remaining
sections of this reference guide.