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Manpower and personnel encompasses determining manning needs and providing
enough people with the required skills and training to meet those needs for a
particular product (In this reference guide the term "product" refers to the
end item for which the customer is paying. "Product" can range in size from a
large intricate system down through a subsystem, an equipment, or an item. For
Government contracts, "product" could mean an entire weapons system, part of a
weapons system, or a non-military item. "Customer" can be either a Government
or civilian procuring agency. See the Glossary for definitions of these
terms.). This template explains how to determine appropriate manning levels by
using Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) methods and output information. The
essential elements of this template process and how they work together are
shown in the figure on page 15. Each process step is numbered and referenced
by number in the explanatory text of this template.
Unlike other logistics concerns, a customer does not purchase manning or
personnel from a contractor. Rather, the customer contracts for data to
determine the right manning levels and skills for a particular product. This
focus on people must also deal with the associated issues of:
Therefore, manpower and personnel requirements must be addressed from the
earliest stages of a product design or acquisition program.
Personnel requirements differ from one product program to another.
Therefore, this template cannot cover all aspects of determining manpower and
personnel needs for industry, the military services, and civilian Government
agencies. One approach is presented here to give insight into this template
process. The reader should consult any applicable directives to ensure
compliance with a particular contract.
Identifying manning requirements and then finding personnel to meet those
requirements are enormous tasks. This is true for both civilian and military
product design and acquisition programs. Manpower constraints should be
identified before beginning such a program, and initial estimates of manpower
needs should be made shortly after the program starts. These estimates come
from comparison of the new product to similar existing products with
adjustments for new design improvements.
Proper manpower planning enhances product performance by helping to
Increased documentation and training costs
Excessive product downtime
Inappropriate product design.
In general product design should not become so complex that operator and
maintenance personnel skill levels are exceeded. However, there are times when
product design must compensate for manning/skill-level constraints:
Manpower and personnel factors can be modified through:
- Matching job assignments with personnel having
required skill levels
- Training available personnel to improve skill levels
- Recruiting new personnel to supplement the present work force.
The manpower planner must somehow match the available personnel, training,
and technical documentation to the complexity of the product