Planning Factors and Analysis
Various analytical activities are needed to determine the manpower and
personnel needs of a product. The maintenance and diagnostics concepts
(Process Steps 1 and 2) give direction to those activities.
The maintenance concept is a major determinant of personnel needs because
it sets the maintenance philosophy for product repair.
For example, a product designed for maintenance at a
contractor depot-level facility would reduce the customer's need for in-house
maintenance manpower and training.
|Risk and Trap: This could happen to you!|
|Lack of early maintenance information result in
incomplete manpower estimates|
|In many Air Force product development programs,
the customer was an observer rather than a participant in establishing
early maintenance. Many early contractor maintenance actions were not
documented in the LSA data base as they were performed. Many of these
maintenance actions were considered routine by the contractor(s) and
were assumed not to need documenting. As a result, manpower requirements
developed from the LSA data base were
The diagnostics concept drives product design concerning fault
isolation and repair. Integrated diagnostics considers how to best mix manual
and automated fault detection and isolation for the most efficient maintenance
Knowing how many components need fault detection and the degree of
automatic fault detection helps determine manpower needs.
The maintenance and diagnostics concepts must influence product design
(Process Step 4), through the LSA data base, to determine the support
resources for a particular design.
The less effective the diagnostics equipment, the greater the need
for people and other resources.
Similarly, failure analysis and maintainability analysis (Process Step 5)
of the product design help estimate the manning and skill levels needed for
repair. Failure analysis determines:
How a component will fail
How often that component will fail
How much time is needed for repair of the failed
Level of Repair Analysis (LORA) (Process Step 5) determines personnel needs
by assigning each specific repair activity to the most economic maintenance
These LSA analyses ensure the best mix of people and other resources
at each repair level and reduce customer costs.
Task identification and task analysis (Process Steps 6 and 7) help verify
that the appropriate manning and skill levels have been identified. Task
Systematically breaks down all tasks required to repair and restore a
complete product or product component
Determines all manpower needs down to the lowest element identified by
Assigns each repair element to a repair
This data is compiled and processed in the LSA data
The LSA data base (Process Step 9):
|Risk and Trap: This could happen to you!|
|Inflated personnel estimates make inefficient use of
available work force and are costly|
|On some Air Force development programs, personnel
requirements for some maintenance tasks were incorrectly established
above that actually needed. Even though experienced personnel could have
accomplished the tasks with less manpower, the established requirements
had to be followed. Some maintenance tasks had to be delayed until all
of the specified personnel were available at the same time. As a result,
maintenance supervisors had little flexibility in directing the
available manpower to meet varying workloads.|
Gathers and classifies LSA data
Synthesizes this data for various outputs
Generates output LSA reports to provide information
about specific logistic concerns.
The LSA data base is accessed through the LSA Record (LSAR). (Refer to the
Logistics Support Analysis Reference Guide for a detailed discussion of the
The LSAR provides the information to help determine if the proposed
product can be operated and supported with the planned manning.
If not, one or more of the following changes may be called for:
Adjust manning levels
Modify the maintenance concept
Increase(decrease) the level and/or amount of documentation
Increase(decrease) the level and/or amount of training
Increase(decrease) the level of other resources
Redesign the product to improve reliability and
The last option is drastic and expensive. Redesign should be considered an
option only if the product design is in the early stages of
Personnel Requirements, Reports, and Summaries
If used properly, the LSAR can automatically produce
reports to support manning and personnel actions (Process Step 10). The
following figure shows how the logistics/LSA process and LSAR data work
together to determine maintenance manpower requirements. Other manpower needs
can be determined with this same process. (Adapted from Integrated Logistics
Support, A Guide for acquisition Managers. Defense Systems Management College.
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Three LSAR reports are especially significant to the manpower and personnel
determination template process.
Direct annual maintenance manhours - details the expected annual
manhours by maintenance levels and skill specialty code. Manhours are
determined by multiplying the time required for each task by the number of
times each task is done.
Personnel and skill summary - summarizes manhours by skill specialty
code for each identified maintenance task.
Maintenance summary -
compares current product maintenance needs with the initial maintenance
These reports provide information to help determine if the current product
design can be supported by the estimated manning. If not, the program manager
must change one or more of the following:
None of these remedies is easily implemented. Also, the later that a
product change is required, the more difficult and costly that change
Manning and skill level status must be reviewed early and
continuously in a product design program to ensure that the finished
product can be supported in the operating environment.