Planning Factors and Analyses
The maintenance and diagnostics concepts (Process Steps 1 and 2) are
important factors in planning spares support. The maintenance concept provides
guidance for such broad issues as:
The maintenance concept sets the boundaries for overall
The approach to design a product for efficient fault isolation and repair
is the diagnostics concept. The diagnostics concept also helps determine the
mix of automatic and manual fault detection and isolation. The degree and
dependability of fault identification affects:
How efficiently repairs can be made
The overall number of spares needed
The types of spares needed.
Generally, the less effective the diagnostics approach, the greater
the need for spares and other resources.
Failure analysis (Process Step 5) is a key activity for determining spare
levels. It determines:
This information helps estimate the types and number of repairs.
Maintainability analysis (Process Step 5) provides additional information
Together, failure analysis and maintainability analysis determine
the number of people, repair parts, and other resources needed to
support a product.
LSA data is also used to produce various operational measures, one of which
is Operational Availability (Ao). This operational measure:
Predicts a product's capability to function in its stated
Encompasses maintenance frequency and average repair/restore times for the
Measures the total drain on logistic
The cost of a repair part itself is only one factor in deciding the
disposition of a failed part or component.
LORA (Process Step 5) helps determine the most economical level of
Repair at the customer's location (organizational-level
Repair at a special repair location (intermediate-level
Repair at a depot or centralized location
The types of test and support equipment available at each repair level and
the cost of using that equipment influences where repairs are made. Similarly,
the number and types of repair parts maintained at each repair level
determines the total number and types of spares required at that
The level of repair influences:
The required spares for each repair
The required manpower to effect the repair
The required training to prepare the manpower
The required technical documentation to support the
Thus, spares considerations cannot be made independently of other
Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis (Process Step 5) considers all product
Usually, commercially available computer programs are used to generate this
information. For certain Government contracts, a particular computer program
may be required or even furnished by the customer.
Task analysis (Process Step 8) systematically breaks down all the tasks
required to repair and restore a complete product or product component. All
support needs (i.e., manning, tools and equipment, and repair parts) are
determined down to the lowest element identified by failure analysis. Each
such element is then assigned to one of the following repair
LORA, LCC, and task analysis are applied to every part identified by
failure analysis. The resulting data is entered into the LSA data base
(Process Step 9) through the LSA Record (LSAR). The LSAR classifies,
categorizes, and codifies the data as it is collected.
By integrating all the analysis information, the LSAR also provides
a way to extract specific information in specific reports to
support specific logistic activities.
Two reports important to the spares determination template process that can
be extracted from the LSAR are:
These two reports are excellent tools to ensure the consistency of
maintenance procedures and spares decisions. They can also be used to ensure
that required tools and test equipment are accounted for.
Provisioning Guidance and Strategy
Provisioning guidance is provided through the provisioning requirements
statement (Process Step 10) and the provisioning guidance conference (Process
The provisioning requirements statement establishes schedules, actions,
procedural data, and deliverable data requirements for a particular contract.
It also calls for a provisioning guidance conference to:
Ensure that both the customer and contractor understand provisioning
Establish funding and tasking milestones
Determine data requirements.
The customer may request a preliminary provisioning preparedness review
conference to see if the contractor's provisioning preparation, documentation,
and facilities are adequate.
Provisioning screening (Process Step 12) usually applies to Government
contracts. If required, it would be included in the provisioning requirements
statement. Provisioning screening compares new or proposed supply items with
the items already in the Government supply system to:
Screening can also apply to civilian contracts to:
Ensure full use of items already in customer
Prevent duplicating items already in customer
Use appropriate items that are commercially available
Replaceable Assemblies and Components
One LSA by-product is a list of assemblies and components for repair of a
higher assembly (Process Step 13). These items are further categorized as
repairable (spares) and nonrepairable (repair parts).
The replaceable assemblies information helps determine the level of
detail required in training and the technical manuals.
Item Management Codes
After the repair/replace status of a replaceable item is established, item
management codes (Process Step 14) are assigned to further determine how that
item is handled. These codes are entered into the LSA data base for
processing. One such code, which is very useful, is the source, maintenance,
and recoverability code. This code:
Identifies an item as:
- Procurable on a limited basis
- Needing manufacture.
Indicates the maintenance level for repair
Indicates the disposal level when repair is not
Source, maintenance, and recoverability codes must be consistent
with the maintenance concept.
There are many more item management codes, many of which share information.
Therefore, care must be taken to select only the codes for the necessary
information while ensuring that other codes in other parts of the data base
are not affected.
(For Government contracts, source, maintenance, and recoverability codes
are generated according to the requirements in MIL-STD-1388-2A and any other
Estimating Spare Levels
Various models and computer programs are commercially available for
estimating spares requirements (Process Step 15). The Government also provides
similar models for use on applicable contracts. Spares requirements for small
programs can even be computed manually using formulas from MIL-STD-1388-2A and
other sources listed in the bibliography of this reference guide. Regardless
of the computational method, the spares information is entered into the LSA
data base for producing various provisioning reports.
Any spares model should determine the level of spares that will
ensure product availability in the most cost effective manner.
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Provisioning Data from LSA Reports
The provisioning data required for a particular
product development/acquisition program is set down in the contract for
that program. A wide range of provisioning data can be developed from the
information in the LSA data base, but be sure to generate only the data agreed
upon in the contract.
LSA data base information is accessed through the LSAR. (A Government LSAR
is described in MIL-STD-1388-2A. See the Logistics Support Analysis Reference
Guide for a detailed discussion of this LSAR.) Some of the LSAR information
outputs are described below. The Government LSAR output report(s) is(are)
listed in parenthesis:
Provisioning Parts List (LSA-036) - determines the range and quantity of
support items for an initial period
Recommended Repair Parts List (LSA-009, LSA-015, and LSA-036) - establishes
preoperational repair parts and training equipment
Interim Support Item List (LSA-036) - identifies
support requirements for a transitional operating period; identifies
budgetary aspects of the identified support.
This provisioning output information should be available during
(Other required LSA reports, applicable Data Item Descriptions, and LSAR
data interfaces for Government contracts are given in
Provisioning conferences (Process Step 17) allow the customer to:
Formal provisioning conferences should be coordinated with other program
milestones to avoid conflicts and delays that would affect provisioning
activities. General conferences are held when needed to resolve general
Post Provisioning Activities
If properly planned and conducted, provisioning conferences can pave
the way for follow-up provisioning activities.
Prepares a provisioned item order to buy support items from the
Makes adjustments to delivery requirements for support items and the
Places additional orders for support items during
the contract's life.
After receiving the provisioned item order, the contractor submits a priced
provisioned item order (Process Step 18). This documents the following, by
Overall proposed pricing and schedule information should be submitted
timely even if agreement on line item prices is pending. Now price
negotiations can begin.
(For Government contracts, other specific provisioning details are given in
Delivery Schedule and Pricing Authority
For Government contracts, the following delivery steps are taken:
If the customer does not provide a delivery schedule the contractor must
submit a line item delivery schedule within 60 days of receiving the
provisioned item order.
Then the customer has 30 days in which to notify the contractor if the
proposed schedule is acceptable.
If the proposed schedule is not acceptable, an
alternative schedule is negotiated.
The resulting approved delivery schedule is incorporated in the contract
through a supplement agreement (Process Step 19). This provides for actual
delivery of the spares.