Planning Factors and Analyses
The results of the logistics/LSA process are used to determine the training
needs to support a particular product design. This process is summarized as
The maintenance and diagnostic concepts (Process Steps 1 and 2) impact
product requirements (Process Step 3).
Together, they influence the product design (Process Step 4).
The product design and the related analyses of Process Step 5 define the
operations and maintenance tasks for that product (Process Step 7).
Once identified, these tasks are further detailed through task analysis
(Process Step 8). One requirement determined by task analysis is the skill
level for each task.
Lastly, the number, nature, and skill level of the identified tasks are
balanced against the available resources (Process Step 6):
- Available manning
- Skill levels of available personnel
- Available facilities
- Available support equipment.
Training equalizes the difference between the skill level needs
identified by task analysis and the existing personnel skill
If properly identified early in a product design program, training concerns
Influence controllable factors to help equalize available and needed skill
levels (e.g., type and degree of built-in-test)
Use Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis to determine
tradeoffs to balance design/acquisition costs with long-term support
The results of these and other tradeoffs are captured in the LSA data base
(Process Step 9). This data is analyzed and organized in various ways to
provide direct and indirect information for developing training
The instructional technologist is responsible for coordinating development
of the training approach. To do this, the technologist:
Uses the LSA data to identify training objectives
Provides guidance to the logistician conducting task analysis and learner
- Provides guidance to the technical writer regarding the skills and
knowledge needed to perform the job or task
Provides guidance to the trainer developing the
optimum delivery strategy.
The resulting training approach is discussed at a training conference
(Process Step 10) arranged by the contractor with the customer. The date and
place for the training conference should be decided within 60 days after
contract award. At the conference, the contractor presents a detailed proposed
training plan based on:
Pertinent LSA data
The contractor also has the responsibility to document in conference
minutes any agreements and decisions about training course requirements. If
necessary, the customer may request additional conferences.
The results of the guidance conference are used to further refine the
training approach which is then documented in a formal training plan (Process
Step 11). The training plan addresses:
Course data, nature, and content
Justification for the course
Impact of not developing the course
- Training equipment
- Training materials
- Training facilities
- Required training personnel
Recommendations for additional training.
|Risk and Trap: This could happen to
|Training without a training plan or special
|In an attempt to save money, training for a
deployed Navy prototype sonar system was conducted by design
engineers. No training plan, outline, or training materials were
developed to support this training. As a result, the training
consisted exclusively of inappropriate technical information that did
not address the training needs. Even after completing the
training, the trainees did not know how to recognize and correct system
If a contractor is providing training for only part of a product, that
training may be incorporated into a higher-level training plan for the entire
product. Similarly, a product training program could be raised to the level of
a military service-wide or customer company-wide training program. In the
latter situation, the impact of the new training program on existing training
resources would be considered, including how many training personnel would be
Training Outline and Curricula Design
A training outline (Process Step 12) is created from the training approach
given in the training plan.
Terminal objectives are defined in more detail.
Lower-level supporting or enabling objectives are defined.
All objectives are arranged to allow a logical flow of information to the
The specific criteria are set for determining if the
training is successful. In ISD terminology, this is the criterion
Set the training goals and the measurement criteria for meeting
those goals before developing and distributing any training
Further definition of the training methods is done during curricula design
(Process Step 13).
Developing training materials (Process Step 14) leads in many directions,
depending on the form of the final product.
Classroom training requires developing instructor and student guides, as
well as audio-visual aids.
A video presentation requires writing a script and producing the video
Computer-based training requires writing software to
disseminate the information.
Each type of training material serves a unique function. A course
designed for one format usually cannot be translated into another
format without considerable rework.
Regardless of the chosen format, the instructional technologist coordinates
Ensuring reliable translation of design specifications into instructional
Designing and reviewing the training materials with subject matter experts
and other experts
Designing and conducting development testing of the prototype training
Designing and conducting field trials or pilot
All other areas of course support must also be developed along with the
instructional materials. For example, for the hands-on experience required for
Provide training in the actual operating environment, if possible, or use
For troubleshooting, provide a way to simulate faults:
- Pre-faulted modules
- Special software to imitate equipment
Operator training requires different support: simulation of situations
reflecting the actual operating environment.
Providing the technical support for training requires involvement
from engineers as both subject matter experts and designers of
unique training devices/software.
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After development, the training materials are evaluated for:
This is usually done in the controlled environment of a pilot
Typical trainees are introduced to the training material in the presence of
Specific, detailed feedback is then gathered from
both the trainees and the observers.
Immediately after completing the pilot session, the training material is
critiqued, based on feedback comments and observations.
Pilot training observers should reach agreement on needed course
material improvements before adjourning the pilot evaluation
Material Revision and Delivery
|Risk and Trap: This could happen to
|Inaccurate assessment of training needs|
|Training was developed for a civilian Government
customer for a complex, embedded computer processor that communicates
with the host system through complex external interfaces. All the
proper development steps were followed, but the needs of the
target audience were not recognized or inadequately addressed -
understanding of how the external interfaces communicated with the host
system. After finalization, a pilot course was offered, and
student feedback was received that was highly critical of course
content. As a result, the training had to be redesigned and
redeveloped at great expense.|
The training materials must be revised, based on the results of the pilot
session, before official delivery to the customer. Depending on the course
media, changes can range from minor text revision to major, expensive remakes.
Instructor-led (classroom) training materials may require text changes to
the printed course material and any supporting audio-visuals
Video scenes may have to be reshot
Computer-based training may require new software
When all needed changes are incorporated, the training materials are ready
for delivery to the customer.