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The following paragraphs discuss how to apply the logistics/LSA process
discussed in the Overview and Procedures Sections of this template. The
discussion is simplified and includes only the essential tasks.
Manpower and personnel requirements complement other elements of logistic
Personnel requirements must be balanced against available manpower
and man's limited capabilities.
The difference must be compensated by:
|Risk and Trap: This could happen to you!|
|Incorrect personnel tasking resulted in extensive
|Manning levels were limited for a military
tactical communications system because of operational constraints.
All operating personnel had to perform several different tasks.
Often the secondary tasks required higher skill levels than the primary
task. Personnel were assigned according to their primary task
rather than the task requiring the highest level of skill. As a
result, extensive additional training was
Military and Civilian Staffing Factors
Depending on the contract, manpower analysis must consider that military
and civilian customers have different staffing methods. This may greatly
affect how manpower requirements are viewed.
Staffing in the civilian sector:
Is based on work load and other economic factors
Fluctuates from year to year
Fluctuates more in individual departments than in the overall
Usually is not transferred from department to department to match job
openings with surpluses elsewhere.
This civilian fluctuation could greatly affect the availability of
Military staffing levels, however, are set by Congress for each service.
Within these limits each service assigns personnel to each organization based
Once set, these requirements normally do not change unless a unit's
assignment or equipment authorization changes.
Military manpower resources usually remain relatively
The military community also determines manpower requirements differently
from the civilian community.
Each service has its own manpower procedures, standards, and
Individual program managers specify how many people are needed to operate
and support a product.
The manpower and training personnel determine the
skill levels needed to meet those requirements.
|Risk and Trap: This could happen to
|Program managers lack the LSA training to make
appropriate manpower requirements decisions|
|Some Air Force acquisition program managers were
assigned according to their technical experience alone. They had
not logistics training and depended on others to provide logistics
guidance. Some resulting manpower requirements were not
valid. In some instances, support data requirements were not
properly established in the production contract. As a result, the
initial provisioning process experienced many costly revisions, adding
to overall program expense.|
Identification of Manpower Requirements
Manpower constraints and initial estimates of required manpower are made
early in a product design or acquisition program. As the product design begins
to emerge, actual manpower requirements are determined, usually by computer
Hardman is one computer modelling tool for predicting manpower and
personnel requirements by skill specialty code.
Hardman and the Acquisition Process (Adapted from Military
Manpower/Hardware Integration Program (Hardman). Computer Sciences
Corporation. July 26, 1989.)
Satisfies manpower and personnel planning and reporting
Identifies critical manpower and personnel issues
- Estimates early manpower and personnel requirements
Uses manpower and personnel data for design tradeoffs
Integrates manpower and personnel requirements into the design
Optimizes manpower and personnel requirements, product design, and product
cost by directly applying Hardman data
Two other computer modelling programs are Impacts (Wright, Michael J.,
Major. Making Weapon Systems More Tan Just "Metal on the Ramp," Air Force
Journal of Logistics. Summer 1989.) and Manprint (Booker, H.R. Progress of
Manprint - The Army's Human Factors Program, Human Factors Society Bulletin.
December 1988.). Impacts is an integrated manpower, personnel, and
comprehensive training and safety program developed by the U.S. Air Force to
influence design and operation of new and modified weapon systems. Manprint is
a U.S. Army management and technical program for improving weapon system
performance and personnel (unit) performance.
Manpower requirements for a new or modified product evolve from
continuous analysis of that product's support requirements to ensure
This continuing analysis identifies deficiencies in manpower support and
determines better ways to perform the assigned tasks. Logisticians
Supportability performance may be measured by:
This analysis also:
Provides input for logistics support planning
Establishes realistic bounds to the support resources for a developing
Provides use study and comparative analysis information (Refer to the
Logistics Support Analysis Reference Guide for a detailed discussion of these
During full scale development, more precise manpower estimates are
developed based on the data from detailed task analysis.
|Risk and Trap: This could happen to
|Total personnel requirements not considered
during product development|
|Program management for a new automatic data
processing system did not consider all possible required personnel for
this equipment. Users and maintainers were included in the manpower
estimates, but not operators. This deficiency was not discovered
in time to resolve easily or quickly. A substantial amount of time
was required to document and authorize new skills and manpower