||Ex-SE: Expert System on Systems Engineering
Logistics Support Analysis - Background Information
Logistics Support Analysis (LSA) is an analytical process for influencing
the developing design of a product for supportability. LSA determines if that
product can be supported with the planned or anticipated resources. Therefore,
LSA provides the foundation information (data) for subsequent logistic
activities, such as technical documentation and training. LSA may be formally
defined as "a planned series of tasks performed to examine all elements of a
proposed system to determine the logistic support required to keep that system
usable for its intended purpose; and to influence the design so both the
system and support can be provided at an affordable cost." (Logistic Support
Analysis Primer. USAMC Material Readiness Command Support Activity, (AMC
Pamphlet 700-22). September 1988.)
The implied goals of LSA are to:
Influence and change a product design, as necessary, to meet supportability
requirements before the design is finalized.
Determine if the planned design supports the stated operating requirements
with the expected manning, facilities, and other resources.
Adjust the planned resources to provide the best possible support, if the
design is not supportable with the planned resources and redesign is not
Provide a focused philosophy and common data base of
information for integrating all logistic activities.
Develop the best combination of actions that will
incur the least cost.
Viewed as a process, LSA is a flow of interrelated activities generally
completed in the following simplified sequence.
This process has many intermediate steps which vary according to the size
and complexity of each individual project.
This template provides detailed information about LSA, which provides the
data for developing subsequent logistic support. Information about the
specific application of LSA to technical documentation, training, spares,
support and test equipment, and manpower and personnel can be found in the
individual templates on these subjects.
Intent and Terminology
The intent of this template is to give the reader a basic understanding of
the overall LSA process. Typical LSA problems and how to avoid or solve them
have been included as practical examples. These specific situations could be
encountered by an analyst or manager during any product development program.
Other practical information is given in the Summary and References section
of this template.
The acronyms and many of the terms used in this booklet (such as
supportability, pre-concept phase) are defined in the Glossary.
Resource material and further suggested reading are given.
Additional detailed information is presented in the
Although LSA can be applied to product design for any customer, most
current LSA programs have been developed because of Government purchasing
needs. Also, LSA can be applied to the design of products ranging in size from
a large intricate system to a single item. The terms "customer" and
"Government" are used interchangeably in this template, as are "system" and
The strategy of LSA is the development of a product that can be supported
efficiently at a given cost throughout the product's design, development,
manufacture, and operational lifetime. Properly applied, LSA becomes a useful
management tool throughout a product's life cycle. The finished product will
be easy to use, maintain, and repair. Furthermore, the product will function
under the conditions of its intended environment.
LSA is an integral part of an overall strategy built upon this series of
Transition from Development to Production template (Transition from
Development to Production. Department of Defense (DoD 4245.7-M). September
1985.) guides. Together with Best Practices (Best Practics: How to Avoid
Surprises in the World's Most Complicated Technical Process. Department of the
Navy, (NAVSO P-6071). March 1986.), these templates provide the engineering
discipline and road maps for a successful, low risk transition from product
development to production. (See the partial template diagram
The Logistics Support Analysis
template is related to four others: Money Phasing, Trade Studies,
Mission Profile, and Design Requirements. Logistics is the outcome.
What is LSA?
LSA is a repetitive, analytical process for evaluating a particular product
design for supportability.
One benefit of LSA is the continuous feedback of information for the design
and development process from:
Also, through the feedback of LSA results, project management has a tool to
achieve a balance between:
(Adapted from Blanchard, Benjamin
S. Logistics Engineering and Management, Third Edition.
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Why Have LSA?
LSA should be a major part of the analytical effort within the design
Government and commercial experience shows that the cost of operation and
support exceeds all other program costs combined.
Planning for supportability not only ensures that
the product can be supported, but also lowers total program
In the customer/contractor relationship, LSA strategy and tasks are defined
by the customer. Application of LSA usually requires a large, specialized
investment in manpower and resources tailored to each product procured -
something most customers cannot afford. Therefore, except for early studies
conducted by the customer, most LSA tasks are passed to the contractor
designing the product. The contractor has the design expertise and information
interchange resources to carry out an appropriate LSA program.
However, both the initial and the final LSA burden are on the customer.
Ultimately, the customer must ensure that contractor supplied LSA is
appropriate. Initially, the customer must accurately describe what is to be
addressed by an LSA program. Later, the customer has the responsibility to
ensure that procured items are functional and supportable.
Specific Customer LSA Responsibilities
Customer LSA requirements are presented in:
After the contract award, the customer's LSA representative contributes to
the contractor's LSA effort by:
Providing models and input parameters
Providing data and factors for Use Studies
Approving an appropriate formal reporting method to provide an official
written history of LSA inputs, outputs, results, and data. This data
collectively is known as LSA data, the majority of which is collected through
the LSA Record (LSAR). The method of data collection may vary (e.g., manual,
automated, or combined).
Assessing contractor compliance with the contract
requirements (i.e., Design Review, LSA Review, Program Review - see page 40
of this template and the Design Reviews Template).
Specific Contractor LSA Responsibilities
Initial contractor LSA concerns involve preparation of:
A detailed competitive response to the customer's RFP
The LSA Plan (LSAP) - a detailed description of the contractor's approach
If approved by the customer, the LSAP becomes contractually
Also, the contractor may prefer using an in-house management tool for the
LSAR. If so, that tool must be presented to the customer for approval before
it can become part of the official LSAP.
Shared LSA Responsibilities
As discussed above, the customer and the contractor have specific areas of
responsibility. However, these areas are not separate and distinct. They are
dependent on each other and, therefore, require concerted teamwork to
accomplish LSA successfully.
This dependence is evident when the major elements of the customer's ILSP
and the contractor's LSAP are compared. (See page 9.) For example, one purpose
of the ILSP is to set the LSA requirements which the LSAP addresses with a
specific plan of action.
Following contract award, the contractor and customer
LSA representatives continue to pursue the approved LSA program as a joint
Scope of Plan
Summary of Documents
Functions to be Performed
Supply Support Plan
Listing of Consumable
Test Support Equipment Plan
Test and Support
Personnel and Training Plan
Determining cost of New
Life Cycle Cost Data
Scope of Plan
Summary of Plan
Selection of LSA
LSAR Data Delivery
Misconceptions about LSA
Today's business world is highly competitive. To survive and thrive, all
available tools and resources must be used effectively. LSA is a management
tool that has come of age in today's times of the "bottom line." LSA, utilized
properly, enables the customer and the contractor together to create,
manufacture, and operate the most efficient product possible. However,
misconceptions about LSA must first be put aside. The following addresses some
popular misconceptions about LSA.
LSA is not just spare parts. It is much more. Without LSA, projects greatly
risk not being able to proceed beyond Full-Scale Development (FSD) because
supportability needs have not been met.
LSA done after the fact is not LSA at all. LSA completed after the design
and manufacture of the product merely satisfies Government procurement
regulations. Neither the product design nor the customer realizes any benefit.
LSA done after the fact merely confirms design and/or supportability
LSA is not easy. LSA cannot be accomplished by a few
people with only maintenance or supply experience. LSA is a complex,
interdisciplinary activity. It requires a broad background in logistics . In
certain circumstances, specialized training may be necessary.
"Pay me now, or pay me later." The time and effort
spent to initiate an effective LSA program greatly reduces overall cost to
the customer and the contractor over the life of the