||NAVSO P-3676: Navy Primary and Secondary Batteries
4.7 Packaging, Handling, Storage, Trans., & Disposal
The Integrated Logistics Support elements of PHST&D require
necessary resources, processes, procedures, design considerations, and methods
to ensure that all batteries, battery systems, equipment, and support items
are preserved, packaged, handled, transported, and disposed of properly.
"Packaging" refers to the processes and procedures used to
protect batteries from damage or deterioration during transit or storage
(including cleaning, drying, preserving, packing, crating, and marking).
Packaging requirements are determined by the battery type, expected storage
time and conditions, and contractual requirements. For guidance refer to
MIL-P-116, "Preservation, Packaging, Methods of."
"Handling" refers to the procedures and equipment used for the
movement, transfer, and handling of batteries, systems, and equipment. When
batteries are heavy, they must be handled with special lifting equipment or
carried by more than one person.
"Storage" is the process of depositing, retaining, or storing
batteries in a warehouse, shed, or open area for safekeeping.
Transportation of batteries should be accomplished in accordance
with Department of Transportation (DOT) and individual state regulations.
The need for proper disposition of used batteries and byproducts
such as electrodes and electrolyte has arisen from the increased awareness of
the public and Federal and state governments about the effects of heavy metals
and corrosive liquids on people and our natural environment. The result has
been the issuance of Federal government regulations by the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), DOT, and individual state regulations.
Federal Government Recycling Program
The Defense Reutilization Marketing Office (DRMO) provides for
disposition of batteries and other waste materials. DRMO can advise the user
as to the proper packaging and labeling of items for disposal and will arrange
The U.S. Army's Battery Disposition/Disposal Handbook contains
packaging requirements for batteries. The Handbook is published by the Safety
Office, U.S. Army, CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703-5000.
Code of Federal Regulations
Regulatory efforts of the EPA and DOT are published in the Code
of Federal Regulations (CFR) and address identification, storage, packaging,
shipping, and disposal of hazardous materials. EPA regulations are contained
in Title 40 and DOT regulations are contained in Title 49 of the CFR. Titles
40 and 49 are of considerable volume and have been reviewed in depth by the
legal profession at corporate, state and Federal levels. They provide a basis
for producers, users, and recyclers to continue operations and result in the
safe use and disposal of batteries. Practical interpretations of the CFR's are
addressed in this document for manufacturers and users of batteries.
Improper planning for PHST&D can cause serious adverse
impacts such as: costly design changes, delays in delivery, plus
over-commitment in certain modes of transportation. Some risk areas to be
Batteries too large to be moved by
Transport equipment or
Lithium battery transportation and