||NAVSO P-3676: Navy Primary and Secondary Batteries
Appendix B. Definitions
- A term applied to batteries which require no maintenance
over their life span.
- A phenomenon in which a cell, operated in successive cycles to the same, but less than full, depth of discharge, temporarily loses the rest of its capacity at normal voltage levels (usually applies to nickel-cadmium cell).
- The voltage of a cell midway in the discharge between the fully charged state and the end voltage.
- Machine used for preparing pastes consisting of vertical mixing blades and a removable can - also called a pony mixer.
- Machine used for preparing pastes, the blades of which are horizontal.
- Machine used for preparing pastes and which depends on a mulling action.
- High speed paste mixer with increased cooling action.
mud - Material
which scales or sheds from the positive lead plates and collects in the
- The active materials that compose the negative electrode.
- The electrode acting as an anode when the cell is discharging.
- The operating characteristics (performance) of the cell is limited by the negative electrode.
- Negative electrode.
- Cells or batteries that do not contain water, such as those with molten salts or organic electrolytes.
nucleants - Small amounts of addition agents to
low antimonial-lead alloys to promote proper crystallization.
- Unit of electrical resistance. The ohm is the resistance of a conductor such that a constant current of one ampere in it produces a voltage of one volt between its ends.
- Condition of a battery which is neither on charge nor on discharge (unconnected).
- The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell when the circuit is open (no-load condition).
- In lead-acid batteries, formation conducted in electrolyte of such strength that when the forming charge is completed, the electrolyte will be of final battery concentration.
- Part of the expander in negative paste mixes usually of a ligneous nature (in lead-acid batteries).
- The forcing of current through a cell after all the active material has been converted to the charged state. In other words, charging continued after 100% state of charge is achieved.
- Voltage in excess of the equilibrium potential.
- A chemical reaction that results in the release of electrons by an electrode's active material.
- A compound formed by the chemical union of an element and oxygen.
recombination - The process by which oxygen generated at the positive
plate during charge reacts with the negative material of the negative
- A circuit in which battery poles of like polarities are connected to a common conductor.
- The phenomenon by which a metal, although in conditions of thermodynamic instability, remains indefinitely unattacked because of certain surface conditions.
- Mixture of materials applied to electrode grids and later converted to the active state.
- A plate, usually for a lead-acid battery, manufactured by coating a grid or support strip with active materials.
- Operation of applying paste to grids.
- Active material or dried paste bounded by two neighboring horizontal grid bars and two neighboring vertical bars.
- Powder compacted into a pellet shape.
- Prolonged immersion of pasted plates in dilute sulfuric acid solution.
- A plate for a lead-acid battery in which the active materials are formed directly from a lead substrate by electrochemical processing.
- An assembly of active materials on a supporting framework grid, frame, or support strip (also electrode).
- A plate for a secondary battery in which active materials are held in perforated metal pockets on a support strip.
- Difference between the actual and equilibrium potentials of an electrode.
- Percentage of total (apparent) volume occupied by voids.
positive active material
- The active materials that compose the positive electrode.
- The electrode acting as a cathode when a cell is discharging.
- The operating characteristics (performance) of the cell is limited by the positive electrode.
- Positive electrode.
- Electromotive force, voltage.
- Rate at which energy is released or consumed (expressed in watts).
- Power per unit weight or volume. (W/kg or W/L)
primary cell or battery - A battery which cannot be recharged and is discarded when
the cell or battery has delivered all its electrical energy.
- The number of ampere-hours a cell can deliver under specific conditions (rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature); usually the manufacturer's rating.
- State in which the gases normally formed within the battery cell during its operation are recombined to form water.
- The lowering of the polarization of a cell during rest periods.
- An oxide of lead sometimes used in making pastes.
- A chemical process that results in the acceptance of electrons by an electrode's active material.
- A specially chosen electrode which has a poised, reproducible potential against which other electrode potentials may be referred.
- A cell which may be stored in an inactive state and made ready for use by adding electrolyte or, in the case of a thermal battery, melting a solidified electrolyte.
- Capacity left after a certain discharge time.
reversal - The
changing of the normal polarity of a cell.