Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Dover Air Force Base (DAFB) is in a severe Non-Attainment Area for ozone. The primary air pollutants of concern are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Refueling activities of C-5 Galaxy aircraft resulted in sizable releases of VOCs. The old central heating plant was a prime culprit for releases of NOx and other air pollutants. The replacement of the burners to low NOx burners was required under the new regulations. The base has three vehicle refueling stations. One had a monthly volume of 10,000 gallons or more of fuel, and installation of vapor recovery equipment was required.
The first effort to meet the new standards for air emissions was to change the fuel used in the C-5s. The aircraft were formerly fueled with JP-4 fuel, which is like a mixture of kerosene and aircraft gasoline. The use of this fuel results in substantial quantities of VOCs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). The new fuel, JP-8, has virtually no BTEX and results in low levels of VOC releases during refueling. This reduced VOC emissions by 145 tons per year.
The next effort was to convert the central heating plant to burn natural gas rather than No. 6 fuel oil and base housing from No.2 fuel oil to natural gas. This reduced air pollutant releases from the central heating plant by over 312 tons per year, plus a small increment of VOCs. The conversion of base housing is also expected to reduce VOC emissions by about one ton per year and other emissions by over 90%. The installation of vapor recovery equipment at the three base vehicle refueling stations reduced VOC emissions by 15 tons per year.
The conversion from JP-4 aircraft fuel to JP-8, the switch from No. 6 fuel oil to natural gas at the central base heating plant, and the installation of vapor recovery equipment at the base vehicle refueling stations are fully implemented. The conversion to natural gas from No.2 fuel oil in base housing is underway. The changes have reduced costs by over $100,000 per year.