Products must meet the customer's performance, cost,
and schedule requirements. Based on these requirements, product goals are
defined by the IPT in 3.1
. Goals must be well documented so that a comparison of goals to
actuals can be performed to assess product producibility and to provide
continuous feedback and enable improvement.
In addition to customer-driven goals, most organizations
have internal goals, such as reducing the manufacturing cost of all products by
10 percent to increase the profit margin or reducing machine downtime by 15
percent. These must also be considered by the IPT when developing the
producibility goals and metrics for the product.
Producibility goals should be specific and measurable.
Examples might be the maximum number of defects per unit product or the maximum
internal cost of manufacturing for the product.
Types of product measurements vary widely from product to
product and from industry to industry. What to measure depends on the product
itself and internal as well as customer requirements. Each product IPT, in
concert with the corporate strategy and guidelines, must determine what is
important to measure and establish appropriate metrics. Examples of product
measurements commonly used to assess quality, cost, and schedule include, but
are not limited to:
Quality: Cp, Cpk , DPU,
dpmo*, rework, scrap, yield
products, components, materials, processes, etc.)
time, lead time, deliveries to schedule
(*The Acronyms Cp, Cpk, DPU, and
dpmo can be found in Appendix A .)
Examples of other product measurements that impact
Number of new parts, new vendors, new processes
of parts, processes, tools, features, and characteristics
(*The Acronyms ECN and ECP
can be found in Appendix A .)
To assess the producibility of the product, the IPT
analyzes the product data for trends and identifies any necessary corrective
actions. Corrective actions could be either design or process-related. Results
of these analyses are forwarded to the team or person responsible for
maintaining the corporate design guidelines (discussed in 1.5
Product measurements are necessary to assess whether the
product meets customer-driven as well as internal goals.
personnel typically perform product measurements during routine product
inspection steps. Quality engineers are required to oversee the measurement of
the product, and the IPT analyzes data to identify trends and any necessary
Tools and Techniques: There are many tools and techniques to measure products.
Widely used techniques that target variability reduction (both product and
process) as its goal are Six Sigma and Statistical Quality Control (SQC).
Techniques that are helpful in identifying inherent problems in either designs
or products and determining possible corrective steps for future products are
Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) and Root Cause Analysis
(RCA). Depending on the chosen method for design guidelines (as discussed in
required tools for collection and analysis of product measurement data might
include web-based software or a database management system. These tools and
the appendix in which they are discussed are highlighted in Figure