Benchmarking: A process of comparing and evaluating
products or processes in order to identify best practices and/or opportunities
Complexity Analysis: An activity used to assess and simplify
the product / manufacturing plan to minimize cost and schedule issues.
Cost Tools: Techniques for evaluating, managing and
controlling the costs associated with product development.
Critical Design Review (CDR): A review conducted to
determine that the detailed design satisfies the performance and engineering
requirements of the development specification; to establish the detailed design
compatibility among the item and other items such as equipment, facilities,
computer programs, and personnel; to assess producibility and risk areas; and to
review the preliminary product specifications.
Database Management System: A computer-based system that
facilitates the creation, maintenance, and access to a database.
Decision Support Tools: Tools, usually computer-based, that
are used to organize and communicate information used for decision-making.
Defect: Any variation in a required characteristic of a
product or its parts which is far enough removed from its target value to
prevent the product from fulfilling the physical and/or functional requirements
of the customer or specification.
Defects per million opportunities (dpmo): A measure of
process capability that normalizes defects per unit data so as to provide an
equivalent comparison of processes, products, and services.
Defects Per Unit (DPU): A ratio of the number of defects
found at any acceptance point to the number of units submitted. All reworked
items undergoing inspection and test are excluded from the calculation.
Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA): A
technique used to analyze, prior to entering the manufacturing phase of
development, a part's design to identify potential failures, errors, and defects
and their effect on cost and risk.
Design for Manufacture / Assembly (DFMA): A technique used
to achieve the optimum balance between design objectives, manufacturing and
assembly requirements, and process capabilities.
Design Guidelines: Design guidelines are a compilation of
knowledge expressed either in hard copy or electronic media that may be used by
the design engineer or the Integrated Product Team to design the product to
optimize its producibility.
Design of Experiments (DOE): The application of statistical
tools and techniques as a means of optimizing product design and manufacturing
Design Parameters: Qualitative, quantitative, physical, and
functional value characteristics that are inputs to the design process for use
in tradeoff studies, risk analyses, and the overall development of a product
that meets customer requirements.
Error-Proofed Design: Design for which the design team or
Integrated Product Team has considered ways to eliminate or reduce the
occurrence of failure from mistakes during the manufacturing, assembly, and