Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A technique used
to identify the cause of failures, errors, and defects and to develop a
corrective plan of action.
Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD): A design
practice, accomplished through the use of multi-disciplinary teams, that
emphasizes the development of manufacturing processes concurrently with the
development of a product.
Integrated Product Team (IPT): An
empowered, multi-disciplinary team that is responsible for the product
development; often used as part of Integrated Product and Process
Key Characteristics: Those product attributes that have the
greatest impact on product performance, and manufacturing time, cost, and
Knowledge-Based System: A computer-based system used to
document and disseminate human expertise and other documented knowledge.
Life-Cycle Cost (LCC): The total cost for development,
operation, maintenance, and disposal of a product over its full life and a value
that is often used in design tradeoff studies. A model can be used to optimize
product costs and predict future costs of maintenance, logistics, and
Manufacturing Planning Tools: Techniques that aid
organizations with integrating manufacturing planning into the product
development cycle and with other business planning functions.
Manufacturing Simulation: A mathematical modeling, usually
coupled with a graphical representation, of a new or existing manufacturing
operation and performed to identify opportunities for improvement or
Modeling and Simulation: The mathematical, physical, or
graphical representation of a product or system on which analytical experiments
may be conducted.
Multi-Disciplinary Team: A team with representatives from
all organizational elements relevant to the successful development of a product
(i.e., design, manufacturing, production, quality, marketing, etc.) (see
Integrated Product Team).
Pareto Analysis: A method, using vertical bar graphs, to
display occurrences in a prioritized order. Occurrences are taken for a specific
time-frame of the event measured.
Preliminary Design Review (PDR): A review conducted on each
configuration item to evaluate the progress, technical adequacy, and risk
resolution of the selected design approach; to determine its compatibility with
performance and engineering requirements of the development specification; and
to establish the existence and compatibility of the physical and functional
interfaces among the item and other items such as equipment, facilities,
computer programs, and personnel.
Process Capability Guidelines: A reference source that
provides the designer or manufacturing engineer with information about the
organization's process capabilities, including equipment, facilities, and
Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA): A means
for analyzing manufacturing processes to identify potential problems that may
induce part defects.
Process Simulation: A simulation that typically focuses on
the precise physical behavior of a particular manufacturing process.
Producibility: The relative ease by which a product can be
manufactured. Relative ease is measured in yield, cycle times, and the
associated costs of options in product designs, manufacturing processes,
production and support systems, and tooling.
Producibility Assessment Worksheet (PAW): Documented expert
opinion that is used as a means of identifying potential problem areas related
to the producibility of a product.
Producibility System: The integrated process and resources
needed to successfully achieve producibility.
Production Readiness Review (PRR): A formal review of a
program to determine if the design is ready for production, if production
engineering problems have been resolved, and if the producer has accomplished
adequate planning for the production phase.
Prototyping: Representation of a product or process used to
determine form-fit-and-function qualities and requirements.