Appendix F: Tools and Techniques
Integrated Product and Process Development
As a means of improving producibility and maintaining
global competitiveness, world-class companies have begun using integrated design
and development concepts to improve their manufacturing processes. Integrated
Product and Process Development (IPPD) emerged from earlier integrated design
practices, such as concurrent engineering. IPPD, also referred to as integrated
product development, expands upon this concept by involving appropriate,
multi-disciplinary teams in all phases of a product's development life-cycle.
IPPD activities primarily focus on meeting the customer's needs, while
simultaneously reducing costs, decreasing development times, and improving
product performance and quality.
For most organizations involved with product development,
IPPD is a new way of doing business. Typically, product development begins with
loosely defined requirements, which, in most cases, have to be changed in the
latter phases of the development process, resulting in elevated development
costs. There is usually minimal communication and exchange of information
between the key disciplines involved in the development process, such as
engineering, design, and manufacturing personnel. This lack of communication
often results in the need to make costly design changes during the latter stages
of the development process, which contributes to high product development costs.
By fostering a disciplined, simultaneous development of products and related
process capabilities, the IPPD approach aims to eliminate these and other
ineffective management practices. When using IPPD, an early, thorough evaluation
of cost, schedule, and performance objectives, design alternatives, and related
process capabilities is critical for success. Additionally, during the early
stages of the development process, process capabilities must be evaluated for
every phase of the product's life-cycle.
Implementation of IPPD practices usually requires an
enterprise-wide cultural change. At the core of the process is the
multi-disciplinary team approach. This multi-disciplinary team is referred to
as an Integrated Product Team (IPT) (see Appendix F.1.9). IPTs
facilitate effective and timely communication and decision making. These teams
include representatives from all essential product development activities,
including engineering, design, manufacturing, and management, as well as the
customer's and suppliers' organizations. One primary objective of IPPD is to
correctly define the customer's requirements early in the product development
process, thereby eliminating the need for costly changes to requirements
during the latter stages of the process. Customer representation as part of
the IPPD process is essential for meeting this objective.
Another benefit of this approach is the ability to
evaluate and improve supplier performance. Often schedules are adversely
affected by a supplier's inability to provide necessary parts and/or services
when required. By including supplier representation in the IPPD process,
realistic objectives are determined at the beginning stages of development,
schedule conflicts are easily identified, and corrective action can be taken to
minimize their effect.
There are no standard procedures for implementing IPPD
practices within an organization. Instead, the principles, tools, and
methodologies should be selected and tailored to suit the specifics of the
organization's products and related processes. In addition to those identified
above, IPPD principles and practices include:
- Thorough planning for product development, including identifying required processes as well as evaluating process capabilities and available technology throughout the product's life-cycle.
- Defining requirements to facilitate the use of IPPD tools and practices.
- Employing risk management (see Appendix F.1.18 ) activities throughout the product development process.
- Providing teams with the proper tools, resources, and
authority necessary to perform their respective tasks.
Successful implementation of IPPD enables enerprises to
optimize their product development processes, thereby reducing costs and
development cycle times while improving product performance and the quality of
both products and processes.
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