Previous and On-Going Efforts
"Study on the Effectiveness of Modeling and Simulation in the Weapon
System Acquisition Process," Science Applications International
Corporation, October 1996
The purpose of this report was to cite documented
contributions to the total acquisition process. It concluded that "There is
consistent evidence of M&S being used effectively in the acquisition
process but not in an integrated manner across programs or functions within
the acquisition process. Substantial evidence has been collected from
individual success stories, though the benefits are not readily quantifiable
into a general standard. The key is in focusing on the integration of M&S
applications, across acquisition programs and throughout the process, not in
exploring the applications themselves..."16
In attempting to quantify metrics, it noted "cost savings are especially
difficult to quantify" and are often "more correctly classified as 'cost
avoidance' and are measures of significant additional work or results that
were obtained using M&S tools which would have cost the reported 'savings'
if they had been obtained by more traditional methods." This study grouped the
challenges that preclude the seamless use of M&S in the acquisition
pro-cess into technical, cultural, and managerial challenges, as noted below:
- Interoperability of M&S Tools;
- Availability of Data Descriptions;
- Security/Sensitivity of Data;
- Physics-based M&S;
- Hardware and Software Limitations;
- Variable Resolution.
- Acquisition Processes;
- Incentives for M&S Use;
- M&S Workforce;
- Acceptance of M&S.
- OSD and Service Guidance;
- Ownership of Data;
- VV&A Requirements;
- Funding Process;
- Use of System Models.
This report defined SBA as a "term to characterize the general approach
of significantly increased use of M&S tools and the new processes
which they enable in a new, more integrated approach to program
development" (italics emphasis added). It further characterized SBA in terms
of a systems engineering process by saying "The positive results of
simulation efforts in systems engineering have become evident in what we refer
to as Simulation Based Acquisition."
C of the October 1996 study contains a useful summary of previous studies
and recommendations dating from 1989 to 1995.