DoD 5000.2-R establishes two fundamental requirements
for program management:
- It requires that an Integrated Product and Process approach be taken
to design wherever practicable, and
- It requires that a disciplined systems engineering process be used to
translate operational needs and/or requirements into a system
Tailoring the Process
System engineering is applied during all
acquisition and support phases for large-and small-scale systems, new
developments or product improvements, and single and multiple procurements.
The process must be tailored for different needs and/or requirements.
Tailoring considerations include system size and complexity, level of system
definition detail, scenarios and missions, constraints and requirements,
technology base, major risk factors, and organizational best practices and
For example, systems engineering of
software should follow the basic systems engineering approach as presented in
this book. However, it must be tailored to accommodate the software
development environment, and the unique progress tracking and verification
problems software development entails. In a like manner, all technology
domains are expected to bring their own unique needs to the process.
This book provides a conceptual-level
description of systems engineering management. The specific techniques,
nomenclature, and recommended methods are not meant to be prescriptive.
Technical managers must tailor their systems engineering planning to meet
their particular requirements and constraints, environment, technical domain,
and schedule/budget situation.
However, the basic time-proven concepts
inherent in the systems engineering approach must be retained to provide
continuity and control. For complex system designs, a full and documented
understanding of what the system must do should precede development of
component performance descriptions, which should precede component detail
descriptions. Though some parts of the system may be dictated as a constraint
or interface, in general, solving the design problem should start with
analyzing the requirements and determining what the system has to do before
physical alternatives are chosen. Configurations must be controlled and risk
must be managed.
Tailoring of this process has to be done
carefully to avoid the introduction of substantial unseen risk and
uncertainty. Without the control, coordination, and traceability of systems
engineering, an environment of uncertainty results which will lead to
surprises. Experience has shown that these surprises almost invariably lead to
significant impacts to cost and schedule. Tailored processes that reflect the
general conceptual approach of this book have been developed and adopted by
professional societies, academia, industry associations, government agencies,
and major companies.